Assumptions Alternatives Take Action In Memoriam

Information on this page provided courtesy of NASMHPD

Restraint and seclusion keep
the people we serve safe

142 deaths in the US from 1988 - 1998 due to S/R, reported by the Hartford Courant (Weiss et al.1998)

111 fatalities over 10 years in New York facilities due to restraints (Sundram, 1994 ar cued by Zimbroff, 2003)

At least 16 children (under 18 years old) died in restraints in Texas programs from 1998 - 2002, reported by local media (American-Statesman, May 18, 2003)

At least 14 people died and at least one has become permanently comatose while being subjected to S/R from July 1999 to March 2002 in California (Mildred, 2002)

50 to 150 deaths occur in the US each year due to S/R estimated by the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis

Rick Griffin, 36, of Stockton , CA was 6'3" and weighed 340 pounds. He was hospitalized in the county psychiatric health facility and became extremely agitated. He was wrestled to the floor by 8 staff members and bound in leather restraints. He died from cardio­ respiratory failure. (NAMI, 2003)

On Tanner Wilson's, 9, first day at a program his leg was broken when staff physically restrained him. After surgery, he returned to the program with a walker. His leg was later broken a 2nd time.
Eighteen months after being admitted, Tanner died while being restrained in a "routine physical hold." He died of asphyxiation - he suffocated. He was 11 years old.

Janella Williams, 35, left her 18th hospitalization with a cast and a broken leg as a result of a restraint. She predicted that if she returned to that NC hospital, "... they will kill me. "
During her next hospitalization at that facility in 2006 she was restrained within 5 hours of arrival. She removed the restraints and walked out of the restraint room 2 hours later. Fifteen staff responded, wrestled her to the floor, held her face-down for 10 seconds when she went limp -'"playing possum. " She was put back in restraints. One hour later, staff checked on her and discovered she was not breathing.

Restraints keep staff safe

For every 100 mental health aides, 26 injuries were reported in a three-state survey done in 1996

The injury rate in health care is higher than what was is reported for workers in:
• Lumber
• Construction
• Mining industries

Jean-Max Auguste, 50, a Mental Health Worker was kicked in the chest during a restraint at Greystone Park Psychiatric Center in NJ and died (2002).

Phil Stubbs, an experienced RN, was also kicked in the chest during a restraint and died at Gold Coast Hospital in Queensland, AU (2005).

Lee McDuffy, 39, a Mental Health Worker at Spring Grove Hospital in MD collapsed and died after physically restraining a consumer (2006).

Restraints are only used when
absolutely necessary and for safety reasons

Ray, Myers, and Rappaport (1996) reviewed 1,040 surveys received from individuals following their New York State hospitalization. Of the 560 who had been restrained or secluded:
• 73% stated that at the time they were not dangerous to themselves or others
• 3/4 of these individuals were told their behavior was inappropriate (not dangerous)

Andrew McClain was 11 years old and weighed 96 pounds when two aides at
Elmcrest Psychiatric Hospital sat on his back and crushed him to death.
• Andrew's offense?
• Refusing to move to another breakfast table

• Mark Bittner, 30, had mental illness and mental retardation, resided at a facility and was a awaiting community residential placement. He died after less than 12 minutes in a prone restraint, on the floor.
• Mark's offense?
• He refused to go to the gym despite telling staff twice that he didn't want to go